Mumbai Population 2024: The Heart of India’s Megacity

mumbai population

Mumbai, often referred to as the “City of Dreams,” is not just a city; it’s an emotion, a melting pot of cultures, and a hub of economic activity. As we step into 2024, let’s delve deep into the population dynamics of this vibrant city and understand the factors that make it tick.

Mumbai, previously known as Bombay, stands as the capital city of Maharashtra, India. It’s not just the most populous city in India but also ranks as the 4th most populous city globally. The city’s heartbeat is its people, and understanding its population is akin to understanding the city itself.

Historical Growth

Mumbai population graphic

According to the World Population Review, Mumbai’s population in 2024 is estimated at a staggering 21,296,517. This is a significant leap from 1950 when the population stood at 3,088,811.

Over the last year, the city has seen a growth of 335,044, marking a 1.6% annual change. The data further reveals that Mumbai’s growth is not a recent phenomenon. The city’s population has more than doubled since 1991, when it was 9.9 million.

Factors Influencing Growth


Mumbai’s allure lies in its promise of employment and business opportunities. This promise has led to a massive influx of migrants from various parts of the country.

While Mumbai stands as a beacon of opportunity and dreams, it’s intriguing to see how it compares to other cities in India in terms of livability and work opportunities.

The rapid population growth, while bringing diversity and economic growth, has also led to challenges, including health issues and a rise in slum populations.

Mumbai’s Demographics

Diversity is the hallmark of Mumbai. From the languages spoken to the religions practiced, Mumbai is a true representation of India’s pluralistic culture.

Linguistic and Cultural Diversity

According to the same source, Mumbai is a city of polyglots. It’s home to speakers of 16 major Indian languages, including Gujarati, Hindi, and Marathi. The city’s cultural diversity is reflected in its religious practices. While Hinduism is the predominant religion, the city is a melting pot of various religious beliefs.

Gender Imbalance



A concerning aspect of Mumbai’s demographics is the skewed sex ratio. Data from the 2013 Census highlighted that 20 out of the city’s 24 municipal wards saw a decline in child sex ratio over the past decade. The gender imbalance is attributed to factors like sex-selective abortions.

Challenges and Opportunities

Mumbai’s growth story is not without its challenges. However, with challenges come opportunities for growth and development.

Slums: The Other Side of Mumbai

One cannot discuss Mumbai without addressing its slums. According to Science Direct it is estimated 41.3% of Greater Mumbai’s population resides in slums. Dharavi, Asia’s second-largest slum, is located in Mumbai. However, it’s not all grim; Dharavi is also a hub of micro-enterprises and boasts a literacy rate of 69%.

Future Projections

Mumbai’s growth trajectory is expected to continue. Projections suggest that by 2030, the city’s population will reach an estimated 28 million. This growth presents opportunities for infrastructural development, economic growth, and community building.

The Socio-Economic Landscape of Mumbai

Mumbai’s population is not just a number; it’s a reflection of the city’s socio-economic dynamics. From the bustling streets of South Mumbai to the sprawling suburbs, the city is a microcosm of India’s economic diversity.

While Mumbai’s population continues to grow, it’s intriguing to note that there are countries like Georgia, nestled between Europe and Asia, that offer a unique blend of ancient wine-making traditions, stunning landscapes, and affordability, drawing an increasing number of expats and digital nomads

Economic Powerhouse

Mumbai, India Economic

According to a report by the Economic Times, Mumbai contributes to over 6% of India’s GDP. It’s the financial nerve center of the country, housing major banks, financial institutions, and the iconic Bombay Stock Exchange. The city’s economic prowess is evident in its skyline, dotted with corporate headquarters and luxury apartments.

Employment and Migration

Mumbai’s promise of employment opportunities has been its biggest draw. The city’s thriving film industry, Bollywood, alone employs thousands. Additionally, sectors like IT, finance, and manufacturing offer numerous job opportunities. This promise of employment has led to a steady stream of migrants, each seeking their piece of the Mumbai dream.

Environmental Concerns and Urban Planning

Mumbai’s rapid growth has brought with it a set of environmental challenges. The city’s geographical location, combined with its burgeoning population, poses unique urban planning challenges.

Coastal Concerns

According to a study by the Hindustan Times, Mumbai’s coastline is under threat from rising sea levels. The city’s reclaimed lands, especially areas like Nariman Point, are particularly vulnerable. This, coupled with the increasing frequency of extreme weather events, underscores the need for robust coastal protection measures.

Urban Infrastructure and Transportation

Transportation in Mumbai

Mumbai’s local train system, often termed its lifeline, ferries millions daily. However, the city’s transportation infrastructure is under immense strain. There’s a pressing need for sustainable transportation solutions, as highlighted by urban planning experts in the Hindustan Times.

Mumbai’s Cultural Tapestry

Mumbai’s population is a melting pot of cultures, traditions, and histories. This cultural amalgamation is the city’s beating heart, making it a hub of artistic and creative expression.

Festivals and Celebrations

Mumbai’s calendar is dotted with festivals. From the immersion of Ganpati idols to the celebrations of Eid and Christmas, the city comes alive with festivities. These celebrations, as covered by India Today, are a testament to Mumbai’s secular fabric and its spirit of inclusivity.

Art, Music, and Cinema

Mumbai is the birthplace of Bollywood, India’s film industry that churns out hundreds of films annually. The city’s theaters, art galleries, and music venues are spaces of cultural expression, showcasing the diverse talents of its populace.

The Health and Well-being of Mumbai’s Residents

As Mumbai continues to grow, the health and well-being of its residents become paramount. The city’s healthcare infrastructure, public health initiatives, and overall quality of life play a crucial role in determining its future trajectory.

Healthcare Infrastructure

Mumbai boasts of some of India’s premier healthcare institutions. However, according to a report by the government, while the city has state-of-the-art private hospitals, its public healthcare system often grapples with overcrowding and limited resources. The challenge lies in ensuring equitable healthcare access for all, irrespective of socio-economic backgrounds.

Public Health Challenges

With a dense population, Mumbai faces unique public health challenges. Outbreaks of diseases like dengue and tuberculosis are not uncommon. The city’s slum populations, due to cramped living conditions, are particularly vulnerable. Public health initiatives, as highlighted by Mumbai’s Municipal Corporation, aim to address these challenges through vaccination drives, health camps, and awareness programs.

Education and Skill Development in Mumbai

Education is the cornerstone of any city’s progress, and Mumbai is no exception. The city’s educational landscape is diverse, with a mix of traditional institutions and modern skill development centers.

Educational Institutions

Mumbai is home to renowned educational institutions like the University of Mumbai, IIT Bombay, and Tata Institute of Social Sciences. These institutions, have produced luminaries in various fields and continue to uphold the city’s academic legacy.

Skill Development and Vocational Training

With a vast young population, skill development becomes crucial. Mumbai has numerous vocational training centers and skill development programs that cater to the evolving job market. These initiatives, supported by both government and private entities, ensure that Mumbai’s youth are job-ready.

The Spirit of Resilience: Mumbai’s Undying Spirit

Mumbai has faced its share of challenges, from terrorist attacks to natural calamities. Yet, the city’s spirit remains unbroken. Its resilience is its defining characteristic, making it truly indomitable.

Overcoming Adversities

Mumbai’s history is replete with instances of the city coming together in the face of adversities. The 2008 terrorist attacks or the annual monsoon floods, the city’s residents have always showcased solidarity. 

Community Initiatives and Grassroots Movements

Grassroots movements and community initiatives play a pivotal role in Mumbai’s resilience narrative. From beach clean-up drives to community kitchens during lockdowns, the city’s residents have always stepped up. 

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

What is the literacy rate in Mumbai?

As of the latest data, Mumbai boasts a literacy rate of approximately 89%, which is higher than the national average.

How does Mumbai’s population density compare to other Indian cities?

Mumbai is one of the most densely populated cities in India, with over 20,000 people per square kilometer.

Are there any initiatives to manage Mumbai’s growing population?

Yes, the Maharashtra government and Mumbai’s municipal corporation have several urban planning and housing schemes to accommodate and manage the city’s growing populace.

How has the COVID-19 pandemic impacted Mumbai’s population growth?

The pandemic temporarily slowed down the migration rate to Mumbai due to lockdowns and economic challenges. However, the city’s inherent appeal ensures a steady population growth.

What percentage of Mumbai’s population is below the poverty line?

Approximately 20% of Mumbai’s population lives below the poverty line, with many residing in slums and working in the informal sector.

Final Words

Mumbai, with its pulsating energy and myriad contrasts, stands as a testament to human resilience, dreams, and aspirations. As the city continues its journey, its population remains its greatest strength, weaving a tapestry of stories that resonate with hope, challenges, and the undying spirit of Mumbaikars.

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