Venomous Snakes in Colorado: Learn About the State’s Slithering Vipers

colorado snakes

Colorado, famous for its breathtaking mountain ranges and diverse wildlife, is home to a variety of snakes. While most of these snakes are harmless, there are a few venomous species that inhabit the state. Understanding the presence and characteristics of venomous snakes in Colorado is crucial for residents, hikers, and outdoor enthusiasts to ensure safety and promote coexistence with these fascinating reptiles. In this article, we will explore the venomous snakes found in Colorado, their habitats, their behavior, and essential safety tips.

Snake Name Habitat Behavior Size Venom Potency
Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis) Grasslands, shrublands, and rocky areas Known for their unique rattle that produces a buzzing sound when threatened. They can regulate the amount of venom they inject Not specified Potentially less severe due to their ability to regulate venom injection
Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) Wetland habitats such as marshes, swamps, and meadows Shy nature, not commonly encountered Small Potent venom

1. Prairie Rattlesnake (Crotalus viridis)

crotalus viridis
Source: sdherps.org

The Prairie Rattlesnake is another venomous snake species found in Colorado. They are commonly encountered in grasslands, shrublands, and rocky areas throughout the state. Prairie Rattlesnakes have a unique rattle that produces a buzzing sound when threatened. They are known for their ability to regulate the amount of venom they inject, making bites potentially less severe. However, any encounter should be treated with caution and immediate medical attention sought if bitten.

2. Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus)

Source: mnherps.com

The Massasauga, a small rattlesnake species, can be found in the southeastern parts of Colorado. These snakes prefer wetland habitats such as marshes, swamps, and meadows. Despite their smaller size, they possess potent venom and should be avoided. Due to their shy nature, Massasaugas are not commonly encountered, but it’s important to be aware of their presence in specific regions.

Certain venomous serpents also hold their ground in the Buckeye State, presenting challenges analogous to those in Colorado.

Safety Tips for Dealing with Venomous Snakes in Colorado

Awareness and Prevention

When hiking or spending time outdoors, it’s essential to be aware of your surroundings. Watch where you step, especially in rocky areas or tall grass, and avoid reaching into crevices or under rocks where snakes might hide.

Proper Footwear and Clothing

Wearing sturdy boots and long pants can provide an additional layer of protection against snake bites. Going hiking, camping, fishing, or hunting all imply proper outdoor footwear. Staying well-dressed is half the protection. 

Respect Their Space

If you encounter a snake, keep a safe distance and do not attempt to handle or provoke it. Remember that snakes usually prefer to avoid humans and will retreat if given the opportunity.

Learn to Identify Venomous Snakes

Familiarize yourself with the appearance and characteristics of venomous snakes in Colorado. Knowing how to differentiate them from harmless species can help you make informed decisions and respond appropriately if an encounter occurs.

Seek Medical Attention

In the unfortunate event of a snakebite, seek immediate medical attention. Stay calm, immobilize the affected area, and remember as many details as possible about the snake’s appearance to assist healthcare professionals in providing appropriate treatment.

Common Non-venomous Snakes in Colorado

Colorado is home to a variety of non-venomous snake species. Some of the most common non-venomous snakes found in Colorado include:

1. Garter Snakes (Thamnophis spp.)

Source: mnherps.com

Garter snakes are widespread throughout Colorado and can be found in a range of habitats, including grasslands, forests, and wetlands. They are known for their distinct stripes running along their bodies and are harmless to humans.

2. Bullsnakes (Pituophis catenifer say)

Source: usasnakes.com

Bullsnakes are large and powerful constrictors that resemble rattlesnakes but lack venom. They are frequent inhabitants of open grasslands and semi-arid regions. Bullsnakes play a valuable role in controlling rodent populations.

3. Western Terrestrial Garter Snakes (Thamnophis elegans)

garter snake
Source: californiaherps.com

These garter snakes are commonly present in the western part of Colorado, particularly in mountainous areas. They inhabit meadows, forests, and near water sources. Their coloration varies greatly, but they are typically non-threatening and harmless.

4. Racers (Coluber constrictor)

american racer
Source: sdherps.org

Racers are slender and fast-moving snakes known for their speed and agility. They live in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, shrublands, and open woodlands. Racers are non-venomous and tend to flee when approached.

5. Milk Snakes (Lampropeltis triangulum)

eastern milk snake
Source: en.wikipedia.org

Milk snakes are colorful and patterned, often displaying bands of red, black, and yellow. They live in various habitats, including grasslands, forests, and rocky areas. Milk snakes are harmless and play a beneficial role in controlling rodent populations.



1. How can I tell if a snake is venomous?

Venomous snakes in Colorado, such as the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake and Prairie Rattlesnake, have certain characteristics to watch for. Look for triangular-shaped heads, vertical pupils, and the presence of rattles at the end of the tail. However, it’s always best to keep a safe distance from all snakes unless you’re a trained expert.

2. What should I do if I encounter one?

If you encounter a venomous snake in Colorado, it’s important to remain calm and slowly back away to put distance between you and the snake. Do not attempt to handle, provoke, or kill the snake. Seek immediate medical attention if you are bitten.

3. Are venomous snakebites common in Colorado?

Venomous snakebites in Colorado are relatively rare. While venomous snakes do exist in the state, they generally avoid human encounters and will usually retreat if given the chance. Practicing caution and following safety guidelines greatly reduces the risk of snakebites.

4. Do venomous snakes live in urban areas?



While less common, venomous snakes have occasionally been found in or near urban areas in Colorado. These encounters are rare and typically occur when suitable habitat exists nearby, such as grasslands or rocky areas. However, most venomous snake sightings occur in more rural or natural settings.

5. Are they aggressive?

Venomous snakes in Colorado, like most snakes, prefer to avoid confrontation and will generally only bite if they feel threatened or cornered. They are not inherently aggressive towards humans and will usually try to retreat when encountered.

6. Are there anti-venom facilities in Colorado?

Yes, Colorado has medical facilities equipped with anti-venom to treat snakebites. These facilities are capable of providing appropriate medical care and treatment for venomous snakebite victims. It’s crucial to seek immediate medical attention in the event of a snakebite.


Colorado’s diverse landscapes provide habitats for several venomous snake species, including the Western Diamondback Rattlesnake, Prairie Rattlesnake, and Massasauga. By understanding their presence, and behavior, and adhering to safety guidelines, individuals can coexist with these snakes while minimizing the risk of snakebites. Remember, while venomous snakes do exist in Colorado, they play a crucial role in the ecosystem. Respect them and only observe them from a distance.

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