Venomous Snakes of Alabama: Poisonous Species to Look Out For

alabama snakes

Alabama, known for its diverse ecosystem and rich wildlife, is home to a variety of snake species. Among these, a few are venomous, possessing potent toxins that can pose a threat to humans and other animals. Understanding the venomous snakes found in Alabama and their characteristics is essential for promoting safety and fostering coexistence with these fascinating creatures.

This article serves as a comprehensive guide to venomous snakes in Alabama, offering insights into their identification, habitats, behavior, and safety measures.

1. Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus)

Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake

The Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake is the largest venomous snake in North America, and it is found in southern Alabama. Recognized by its distinctive diamond-shaped patterns, this snake prefers pine forests, coastal marshes, and sandy habitats. Its venom is highly potent, and encounters should be avoided.

2. Timber Rattlesnake (Crotalus horridus)

Timber Rattlesnake

The Timber Rattlesnake is another venomous species found in Alabama. Its coloration varies but typically includes dark crossbands on a lighter background. These snakes are often found in forested areas, rocky outcrops, and near water sources. Although their venom is potent, they are generally non-aggressive unless threatened.

3. Pigmy Rattlesnake (Sistrurus miliarius)

Pigmy Rattlesnake

The Pigmy Rattlesnake, also known as the Ground Rattlesnake, is a small venomous snake found throughout Alabama. Its coloration varies from gray to reddish-brown with dark blotches along the body. These snakes inhabit a range of habitats, including forests, swamps, and even urban areas. While their venom is less potent compared to other rattlesnakes, caution should still be exercised.

4. Copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix)

Source: washingtonpost.com

The Copperhead is a venomous snake commonly found in wooded areas and rocky hillsides across Alabama. It has distinct hourglass-shaped patterns on its body, which can vary in color from light tan to reddish-brown. Copperheads are famous for their camouflaging ability, making them difficult to spot. Although their venom is typically not lethal to humans, bites are serious and medical attention is necessary quickly.

5. Cottonmouth/Water Moccasin (Agkistrodon piscivorus)

Cottonmouth-Water Moccasin

The Cottonmouth, also known as the Water Moccasin, is a venomous snake found in Alabama’s wetland habitats, such as swamps, marshes, and near water bodies. They are known for their dark, almost black, coloration and the white lining on the inside of their mouths, which they display when threatened. Cottonmouths can be aggressive, and their venom can cause severe tissue damage.

Safety Precautions

When it comes to venomous snakes, prevention and awareness are key to ensuring safety. Here are some general safety guidelines to follow while exploring Alabama’s outdoors:

  1. Learn to identify venomous snakes found in Alabama by studying their physical characteristics and habitats.
  2. Keep a safe distance and never attempt to handle or provoke a venomous snake.
  3. Wear appropriate footwear and clothing when in snake-prone areas, such as tall boots and long pants.
  4. Stay on designated trails and avoid tall grass, rocky areas, and brush piles where snakes may be hiding.
  5. Be cautious when reaching into or around areas that are potential hiding spots for snakes, such as rock crevices or fallen logs.
  6. If you encounter a venomous snake, slowly back away and give it plenty of space to retreat.
  7. In the event of a snakebite, seek immediate medical attention and try to remember the snake’s appearance for identification purposes.

Non-venomous Snakes in Alabama

In Alabama, several non-venomous snake species are commonly present. You also need to know about them so as not to cause panic. False alarms are not great! Some of these include:

Eastern Rat Snake (Pantherophis alleghaniensis)

Eastern Rat Snake
Source: education.mdc.mo.gov

This harmless snake also has the name Black Rat Snake. It is a large, black snake that can reach impressive lengths, which is why it is not a fun sight. It mostly lives in wooded areas and is famous for its climbing abilities. Look up in the trees to spot one. 

Eastern Garter Snake (Thamnophis sirtalis)

The Eastern Garter Snake is a common and harmless snake species that lives throughout Alabama. It has a slender body with distinctive longitudinal stripes and prefers a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, and wetlands.

Eastern Hognose Snake (Heterodon platirhinos)

Eastern Hognose Snake
Source: msherps.com

The Eastern Hognose Snake is a fascinating non-venomous snake that has an upturned snout. It comes in a variety of colors, including brown, gray, and olive. Most often, you can come across it in open grasslands, forests, and sandy areas.

Rough Green Snake (Opheodrys aestivus)

The Rough Green Snake is a slender, bright green snake that primarily lives in trees and shrubs. It is a non-aggressive species and feeds on insects, making it beneficial for pest control.

Eastern Ribbon Snake (Thamnophis sauritus)

Eastern Ribbon Snake
Source: mass.gov

The Eastern Ribbon Snake is a slender snake with distinct longitudinal stripes running down its body. It tends to live near water sources and wet areas such as streams, ponds, and marshes.


1. Are there any non-venomous snakes in Alabama that resemble venomous species?

Yes, there are non-venomous snake species in Alabama that mimic the appearance of venomous snakes. One example is the Scarlet Kingsnake, which has similar coloring and patterns to the venomous Coral Snake. Remember, when it comes to snake identification, it is always best to err on the side of caution and avoid handling any snake unless you are a trained professional.

2. Can venomous and non-venomous snakes be found in the same habitats?

Yes, venomous and non-venomous snakes can inhabit the same environments in Alabama. They often share similar habitats, including forests, swamps, fields, and gardens. This is why knowing how to identify them and what to do if you come across them is so important. 

3. Can venomous snakes in Alabama swim?

Many venomous snakes in Alabama, such as the Cottonmouth, are excellent swimmers. They can be found near bodies of water, including lakes, rivers, and swamps. It is a very underrated ability of snakes that people often forget. 

4. Are venomous snakes more active during certain times of the year?

In Alabama, venomous snakes are generally more active during the warmer months, from spring to early fall. They become less active during colder weather and may hibernate in winter. Basically, their seasonal behavior makes sense and is to be expected. 

5. Do they lay eggs or give birth to live young?

Some venomous snakes in Alabama, such as the Eastern Diamondback Rattlesnake and Copperhead, give birth to live young. Others, like the Timber Rattlesnake, lay eggs. It is a diverse group of animals so it is common for them to have such significant differences. 


Venomous snakes in Alabama play an important role in the ecosystem, but it is essential to exercise caution and respect their presence. By familiarizing yourself with the venomous snake species found in Alabama, understanding their habitats and behaviors, and following safety precautions, you can enjoy the natural beauty of the state while minimizing the risks associated with these remarkable creatures.

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